- chet חטא
- "gmar chatima tova" גמר חתימה טובה
= "conclusion of a good sealing". Traditional expression used when greeting people between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. In effect, this is "May you be written into and sealed in the Book of Life for a good and happy year". In Israel, by the way, whether one is an observant Jew or not, such seasonal greetings are in fairly broad use.
- Machzor מחזור
= meaning "cycle", name of the High Holy Day prayer book.
- mikva מקוה
= ritual pool (see Worthwhile Information).
- ner neshama נר נשמה
= literally means "candle [of] a soul", this is a "Yartzeit" or memorial candle. It will typically burn for up to 25-26 hours (see Worthwhile Information).
- neshama נשמה
= soul. (This also can be used as a colloquial term of friendly endearment in modern Hebrew).
- se-ir le-azazel שעיר לעזאזל
= scapegoat (see Worthwhile Information and Let's Talk About It).
- shofar שופר
= ram's horn (though LearnHebrewPod supports non-animal alternatives). The shofar is blown daily after the morning service during the month of Elul, except for the final day of the month (to create a differentiation between those voluntary blasts and those of Tishrei). It's also blown on Rosh HaShana (usually about 100 times), and at the end of Yom Kippur.
- tallit טלית
= prayer shawl
- tekia gedola תקיעה גדולה
= one very long shofar blast. gadol גדול means "big", and gedola גדולה is the feminine singular form. A tekia gedola is blown at the end of the final service on Yom Kippur.
- teshuva תשובה
= means return, answer, or can connote repentance.
- tzedaka צדקה
= while often translated as "charity", it literally means "righteousness". Tzedaka shares its root with the word tzedek צדק, which means justice (here is an instance where the root may better inform the shadings of real meaning of the word).
- tzom צום
= fast. A "day of fast" is yom tzom יום צום .
- aseret yemey teshuva עשרת ימי תשובה
= Ten Days of Repentance, spanning from Rosh HaShana through Yom Kippur.
- Tishrei תשרי
= 7th month of the year, and in a sense, also the 1st. (For more on the new years – we have four kinds – and why this is also the 7th month, see our Overview on Rosh HaShana).
- yamim noraim ימים נוראים
= Days of Awe, another term for the ten days that begin with Rosh HaShana and conclude with Yom Kippur. In modern Hebrew, nora נורא is actually most commonly used to mean "terrible", e.g. "what a terrible day I had today".
- Yom Kippur יום כפור
= Day of Atonement
- Al Chet על חטא
= "For the Sin", prayer (see Overview).
- Ashamnu אשמנו
= "We Have Sinned", prayer (see Overview). The modern Hebrew adjective for "guilty" is ashem אשם.
- Ki Anu Amecha כי אנו עמיך
= "For we are Your people", prayer (see Overview).
- Kol Nidre כל נדרי
= "All Vows", prayer and service at start of Yom Kippur evening (see Overview).
- Neila נעילה
= "closing". In modern Hebrew this also means locking or adjournment. Neila is the fifth and concluding service of Yom Kippur (see Overview).
- Shema Kolenu שמע קולנו
= "Hear Our Voice", prayer (see Overview).
- Yona יונה
= Jonah, name of one of the "minor prophets" and of the book in Prophets, read on Yom Kippur (see Worthwhile Info and Let's Talk About It). Yona is also a modern gender-neutral name, as well as meaning "dove".